THE GINKGO BILOBA (Ginkgo Biloba)
Where did he come from?
The ginkgo biloba is in short a sacred tree of the Far East, 250 million years old. Some ginkgo biloba are now in China more than four thousand years old!
The first specimens were essentially introduced to France in the 17th century by Pétigny, an amateur botanist, who would have nicknamed them "trees with forty crowns" in reference to the price he would have paid.
It is also the only surviving tree after Hiroshima in 1945. This plant is therefore resistant to all kinds of aggressions (cold, drought, pollution, bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, insects).
Its genus name ("Ginkgo") finally comes from two Chinese words meaning "silver apricot", an allusion to the color of its pseudo fruits. The species name (biloba) "two lobes" comes from the deep furrow that divides its leaves.
Its medicinal use would also be attested as early as the 3rd millennium BC in China (in the treatise "Shen-nung pen ts'ao ching").
How can we describe it botanically?
In short, ginkgo biloba is a 40-metre-tall dioic tree of greyish bark that cracks as it ages. Its fan-shaped deciduous leaves, dividing two to two in parallel, are first green in the spring and then golden yellow in the fall. Its seeds are surrounded by a fleshy yellow fruit. It is now grown mainly in southwestern France, Korea and the United States.
What is it made of?
Ginkgo biloba is composed in short of diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, proanthocyanidols and other constituents such as cash, organic, sterols, alcohols, and sugars.
What are its main pharmacological properties?
Anti-radical activity potentiated by terpenes. PAF-induced bronchoconstriction inhibition.
Vascular spasmolytic by inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransfera (COMT). Inhibition of the inflammatory reaction in relation to PAF.
Its anti-oeematous action is explained by its inhibition to the adhesion of neutrophils to the vascular wall. This explains the protective effect of ginkgolides against ischemia and cerebral post traumatic edema but also renal, cardiac, liver and gastrointestinal.
Ginkgo therefore partially restores brain glucose consumption, reducing the need and increasing the protection of the hemo-brain barrier. However, it limits retinal damage by reducing their neurological consequences. Flavonoids do have an affinity for receptors located in the hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus in rats (circuits activated in memory processes).Improved optic nerve circulation and anti-radical activity partly explain protection in diabetic retinopathies and xenobiotic-induced retinopathies.
Ginkgolide B, a specific and competitive antagonist of the PAF, is notably a platelet anti-aggregator. It causes a significant decrease in intracellular Ca2 and the synthesis of inositol triphosphate.The synergistic flavonoids of ginkgolides have, in short, an action on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins by inhibition of lipo-oxygenase or cyclooxygenase.
Thanks to its action on the neurocognitive sphere, the ginkgo confers:
- improved memory, ability, intensity and speed of learning
- an increase in the passage of synaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine, with mild anxiolytic action (flavonoids)
What are the indications of Ginkgo biloba?
- Alzheimer's disease
- Multiple heart attack dementia
- Brain insufficiency
- Chronic Schizophrenia
- Raynaud's disease
What are the job precautions?
- Contrasusted in case of hemophilia
- Stopping treatment 3 days before surgery
- Products containing fruit or ginkgo seeds should not be consumed
- There's no use in herbal teas
- Under-indicated in pregnant or lactating women
Are there risks of drug interactions?
Like all substances containing active ingredients, the risk of drug interactions should be taken into account.
The ginkgo biloba does not deviate from this rule, here is the list of drug interactions to consider:
- Slight increase in bleeding time: interaction with anticoagulants (warfarin, acetylsalicylic acid via CYP2C9) and anti-inflammatory drugs (rofecoxib).
- May increase the effect of diazepam, trazodone
- May decrease the effect of valproate and carbamazepine
- Risk of drug interactions with anti-arrhythmics, statins, calcium inhibitors and anti-infectives
- Risk of drug interactions with immunosuppressants, H1 anti-histamines, benzodiazepines and anticancer drugs
- Interaction with imipramine, propanolol, omeprazole, pantoprazole and proguanil
- Risk of drug interactions with oral antidiabetics, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, codeine, norcodeine and chemothermatic treatments
How to take it and at what dosage?
In masterful preparation:
Here is the dosage of Fluid Extracts of Fresh Plants Standardized in Glycere solution (EPS):
1 c. coffee morning and evening for 1 month, renewable 3 months, to dilute in a large glass of water
- Mild Depression with Cognitive Brain Slowdown: Ginkgo – Millepertuis (1/3 – 2/3)
- Student Headaches: Ginkgo – Great Chamomile
- Cardiovascular risk with sclerosis: Ginkgo – Olivier
- Circulatory insufficiency associated with sclerosis, peripheral and/or central: Ginkgo – Prawn
- Early genital hormonal aging: Ginkgo – Sage
- Vascular Ageing: Ginkgo – Red Vine