Proteins, important elements of our body, play a fundamental role in different areas. Whether in the protein diet or in oral supplementation, the role of high protein products is to preserve muscle mass. The protein diet or protein saving diet aims to introduce an energy deficit by reducing the intake of macronutrients: carbohydrates and lipids, while preserving muscle mass by maintaining the protein intake. The results obtained are very good. By these successive stages, it tends towards food balance.
What are high protein supplements used for?
In France, protein contributes about 15% of calories, or about 1.2 g of protein per kg of weight. In a protein diet, these represent 20 to 25% or even 30% of calories.
The prescription of protein savings regimes is experiencing significant popularity in the treatment of obesity. The principle of these diets is to induce a significant calorie deficit by providing a diet consisting of a lot of protein so as to avoid inducing a nitrogen balance that is too strongly negative. These diets make it possible to obtain an often rapid and significant weight loss (between 18 and 22 kg in 12 to 15 weeks). A prior medical check-up is essential as well as regular monitoring during the diet. The prescription of a protein-saving diet should be reserved for subjects with proven obesity (BMI> 30 kg / m2) and who have not responded to previous therapy.
High protein supplements and satiety:
A current public health problem, obesity is linked in particular to an overload of adipose tissue. Its definition is based on the determination of the body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence is in fact constantly increasing, especially among children. The etiological analysis of obesity distinguishes the major part of essential obesity and the smaller part of secondary and iatrogenic obesity. Obesity results in particular from an imbalance in the energy balance resulting in an inflation of fat reserves, the causes of which are multiple. It exposes to pathological consequences that can be life-threatening. The dietetic treatment of obesity is based on knowledge of human energy needs and on comprehensive care. High protein diets can attack the fat mass without feeling tired or hungry.
The consumption of proteins improves satiety (secretion of cholecystokinin which has an anorexogenic effect) and thus helps to reduce food intake.
Satiety and thermogenesis:
Proteins act by increasing thermogenesis, that is to say the number of calories burned by the body even without exercising, and by reducing appetite, which means that with this type of diet we consume less energy and more is eliminated.
Being full and maintaining basal metabolic rates (the body’s essential energy expenditure) despite a negative energy balance can be a good weight loss strategy.
Proteins are the most satiating macronutrient, as it induces greater thermogenesis, they are followed by carbohydrates and then lipids.
In general, increased satiety was observed after meals with a protein content between 25% and 81%.
Increased thermal effect of digestion:
When ingesting food, it requires energy to be digested, absorbed, stored and used. However, the metabolic processing is not the same depending on the macronutrient. This is because the thermal effect of protein is significantly higher than that of carbohydrates and fats. Protein requires 25-30% of the energy it provides just for digestion, absorption and assimilation while carbohydrates only require 6-8% and fat requires 2-3%. This means that the consumption of protein generates a higher thermogenic effect than for other macronutrients, and can lead to a higher metabolic rate and thus to a greater loss of fat when dieting, but also, less fat. during high calorie diets.
The protein recommendations:
Before knowing how much protein to consume per day, we must know how much protein is catabolized in a man, every day.
In a healthy sedentary man, catabolism (rate of breakdown of body proteins) reaches 300 g per day. This degradation is therefore compensated by an approximately equivalent anabolism. Of the 300g of catabolized protein, 80% of the protein will be recycled and reused for anabolism. The remaining 20% is irreversibly destroyed and must be replaced with food.
The needs are a little more important for children, pregnant women and athletes.
In France, the minimum nutritional intake (ANC) in protein was established at 0.83 g / kg / d by AFSSA in 2007 (newly ANSES).
The lower limit should be 10% of total energy intake for the general adult population and 12% for people with low energy expenditure.
The upper limit should be 20%, according to ANSES this limit may be satisfactory for most adults. Knowing that “In the current state of knowledge, intakes between 0.83 and 2.2 g / kg / d of protein can be considered satisfactory for an adult individual under the age of 60”.
According to the LaNutrition.fr site, which is the French benchmark for nutrition, you should consume between 15 and 29% of your calorie intake in the form of protein, with half coming from plant sources and the other half from animal sources. Or 50 g per day for an average woman and 60 g for a man.
What are the consequences of a protein deficiency?
- Fatigue and hair loss
- Brittle nails
- Decreased eyesight
- Ligament fragility
- Impaired immune system (recurrent infections)
This diet should however be undertaken only under medical supervision, in order to avoid any health problem. Besides this, high-protein products can also be used in protein-energy malnutrition, which results from a mismatch between the intake and the protein and / or energy requirements. These products, used in oral suppdlementation are generally hypercaloric and can be, according to the needs, enriched or devoid of various components such as lactose, gluten. There are nowadays many high protein products, with many different flavors, thus allowing good compliance, both in the protein diet and in oral supplementation.
- Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire de l’Alimentation, de l’Environnement et du Travail. Apport en protéines : consommation, qualité, besoins et recommandations. Synthèse du rapport de l’AFSSA. 2007
- Lanutrition.fr. Les protéines. www.lanutrition.fr. 2006 mars
- Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire alimentation, environnement, travail (ANSES). AVIS et RAPPORTS de l’Anses relatifs à l’Actualisation des repères du PNNS : élaboration des références nutritionnelles
- Berardi JM. Precision nutrition, strategies for success. 2006
- Carrio C. CTS Nutrition. Fabrègues : CTS Edition ; 2013
- Reyna N, Moreno-Rojas R, Mendoza L, Urdaneta A, Artigas C, Reyna E, Cámara Martos F. Snack high whey protein improves the level of satiety and reduces appetite healthy women. Nutr Hosp. 2015 Oct 1;32(4):1624-8
- Bonjour JP. The dietary protein, IGF-I, skeletal health axis. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2016 Oct 1;28(1):39-53
- Pesta DH, Samuel VT. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Nov 19;11(1):53